Signaling system for railways.

Abstract

Claims

L. H. THULLEN. SIGNALINGSYSTEM FOR BAILWAYS. APPLICATiON FILED AUG. 22 1904. RENEWED MAE.5,1006. 1,109,881 4 M T N/u 8H r Div m S d es t n2 6 LIU a D1 LY I "/5 N 7 '0 Al L. H. THULLEN. SIGFALING' SYSTEM FOR RMLWAYS. 10mm?! TIL RENEWXD 'LD AUG.22,1904 REE ENVENTOR WITNESSES UNITED STATES LOUIS H. THULLEN, OF EDGEVVOOD PARK. OFFICE. PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO THE UNION SWITCH & SIGNAL COMPANY. OF SXVISSVALE. PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF PENNSYLVANIA. Specification of Letters Patent. SIGNALIhIG SYSTEM FOR RAILWAYS. Patented Sept. 8. 1914. Application filed August 22. 1904. Serial Np. 221.773 Renewed March 5, 1806. Serial No. 394.262. Be it lillOWll that I. Loi'is ll. 'lniuinx. a eitixen of the United Statea. tormerly re siding at lldgewood Park, in the county of Allegheny and State of lennaylrania. hut now reaiding at ineinnath in the eounty of Hamilton and State ol ()hio. hare invented e rtain new and metal lmpreyemenh i Signaling .wyxaems l'or llailwayrn ol' whii'h the lollowing' is a speeilieation. My invention relates to signalin; SYFYQIHH for railway and parti ularly to ueh s) terns a:-: are applied to eleetric railways. I will dewrihe a signaling system enr hoilyinn' my invention and its applieation to an ele trie railway and then point out the no el features thereof in elaims. ' In the aeeompanying drawing. Figure l is a dia rammatieal representation of a por tion of an eleetrie railway and a \ig'naline' aydem emhodying my inyention applied thereto. Fig. 2 also a diagranunati al view. hut illu-itruting another l'orm ol my invention. Referring now to the drawings designates a portion ol' a railway in whieh eaeh ol the oppmite linea of rails u. i/ are arranged Hr; in th ordinary eleetrie railway. 'lhat is. the adia eni rail l ngths or e tion eomprhed iu eaeh line of rails are meehanirally i'ouuerted together hy means of j lllltillr (If ei p a-r lamd (til a iii imizzlll) trie ("H'WHl employed l'or propelling th ea or trains along: the railway may llow l'rrily along" the llllt ot' railin ii l-llll'li to the g m rat r. 'lhe 't lill'iilili 'firilili;f enlrent applied to th tra l. ra inter- .:il. run in I in ol the ele i 'al 'liltllt\- lions tween ailjni'ent rail l n 'thor r tions. aho llow in the two line of rail It will he noted that in my imertion the mual insulat d jointwhieh haye heei employed to t r-In the iloi-lt eetiona are omitt d. B deai ll:.ttt-' a jJtHtlalnl'. whieh may he a direet rilllrHl generat r or an alleraatin 'urrent generator a -l: ire\l. lol' ;:en ratin: enrrent for \he propuhiou nl' ears or whi eles along the railway. (inn pole t the ,fenerater ronneried in he M ni mama": with a line HEliiHltit alri'i niii l: 1-. 'lhe .nliaeent rail len z'tlw or i i the trolleys or shoes in earried by the ears or vehicles. I W is an arhitrary representation ofia ear or yehiele. The other pole of the generator I; is eonneeted with the traek rails in the usual or ordinary manner. As hown. it is 1 eonneeted with a eross bond (1 shown in the form of an indlieiiye winding whieh in turn is eonneet -d with hoth traek rails. Both traek rails are llhktl as part of the return path for the propulsion eurrent and Mai-h traek rail presents suhatantially the same ohmie resistance to the propulsion enrrent. However. to compensate for any ditlerenem in ohmie resi tanee to the propulsion ear-- rent and to have the propulaion enrreut potential exenly halaneed, as far aa praeii ahle. at all point along the railway. erow-honda E. E. ete. are employed at ditferent points. lreterahly the rroas h ods are in the form ot' indueliie windings and o eonstrneted as, to present liltlt or no ohmie reai -itau e to the propul. ion eiirrent while at the ame time to present a path of high impedan e to any alternating! earrent that may he iniprwaed upon the trail; rail tor aigualing purposes. \Yilh lhi arrangement of the trail; rail the propulai n eurrent will llow through the rails to the generator in preterenee to llowin; through any other path ewingr to the tart of the ti'at'h rails prwent in; a path of low nlnnie resistanee. designates an alternating eurrent gen- 1 erat l'. and f. 7" l'eeder eonduetow extendingtherefrom and along the line of railway. tl. tl. enz. dwignate traml'ormers loeated at dill er nt poinh along the railway. The primary windings ot' the tran -t rnier are in tll't'llil with the tr wler. l'. and their are in nmh ple it \ill| tin li :-ll ii!! til iail-- til t e tail ay a-- t'lt"ill \il'lfi iii the drawing. The la'alion ol the ll'illll tllllltlfi i i' nditional only in an lal' as the length (l the liloehs are Huieelneil and the re i taiiee allm'ileil try the apparatus employed in the i "nalin,;' system. lrel'erahl a ti'aml'ormer hould he lo aled approximately midway of two signalin; points and prel'eral-ly at the terminal ol' the ei'omlary windings ol' ea -h tranlormer an indni-tiye winding should hr, plaeed. 'lhe di--tanee hetween .dgl' alin; may lie i l any length. tlihelp ll point; distance between two signaling points may be termed a block section. In the drawing l have shown three railway signals S, S and S The distance between the railway signals S, S constitutes one block tion and the distance between railway signals S S constitutes another block section, and so on throughout the length of the railway. The transformer G is shown as being located substantially midway of the ends of the block section between railwa signals S and S and the transformer at substantially midway of the ends of the block section between railway signals S and C Eachtransformer will supply alter. nating current in both directions toward the ends of its block section and eaclr transformer will supply the same alternating current potential at the ,oints of their connection with the rails. 'lhis alternating current potential will vary-at diflerent points according to the, distance from thelpoint of connection ot" the transformer. This is due to the impedance of a conductor to an alter, nating current, and this impedance caused by self-induction, skin effect and the capacity of the rails. By skin effect I mean the tendency of alternating current to traverse the surt'aceof conductors of'magnetizable material such as track rails. Each transformer then will furnish to its block section thrtnighout the length thereof an alter nating current potential sulfieicnt to operate every translating device or relay connected with the rails of its block section, and it is probable that the point on the track rails midway between any two transformers will be at the minimum alternating current potential, provided no car or vehicle is traveling along the railway. Preferably the rail- 'av signals ill be located at these oints. Each block section is prcfera 1* provided with a lurality of translating devices or relays B. it R and R, etc., the number depending on the length of the block section. At least two relays will be employed for each block section. Vhatever the number, that is, more than two, there will be one relay located near each end of each block section. Each translating device will n-cicrably be of such construction as to respond in its ontrol of a railway signal only to the alternating signaling current. The form of translating device or relay illustrated and described .in my Patent No. 823,086 issued June 12, 1906, may be employed. The functions of the several translating devices are the same as in ordinary signaling systems, that is. they act to open or close a. si nal circuit through their arma tnrcs, which armatures therefor constitutes circuit breakers and makers according to the position of a car or vehicle. The signal circuit includes an electrically operated controlling device for a railway signal operating mechanism. In the drawings the action of the translating devices is such that, when no car or vehicle is in a block section in which they are included, they will close through'their armatures or circuit-breakers the signal circuit or the local circuit, as it is generally known in the art, and the signal device of the railway signal will indicate clear or safety. lVhcn a car or vehicle is in a block section it opens the signal circuit and the signal device will indicate danger or caution. The signal devices of the railway signals; may be operated on any of the well known plans, to Wit: normal clear, normal danger or 'ariations of these plans, all of which are well known. llaeh of the railway signals comprised a signal device which by its color or position relatively to its support gives indications of the service condition of the section of track which it governs or controls and an o erating mechanism which is automatica ly or ninually operated and which preferably comprises some ele trically operated controlling device which latter is controlled from the local circuit, In Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, I have shown tour translating devices for each "block section which control the signal circuit for that block section. Starting from the source of current X, which may be any desired, but here shown as a battery. the signal circuit for the block section between railway signals S and S may be traced as follows: wire 1, operating mechanism of railway signal S, wire 2, circuit breaker or armature of translating device R, wire 3, circuit breaker or armature of translating device R, wire 4, circuit-breaker or armature of translating device R (if no car or vehicle were in the block section), wire 5, circuit breaker or armature of translating device R and wire 6 back to battery. The signal circuit for the block section between railway signals S and S starting from the sourccof current X, may be traced followsr'wire 7, 'lpcrating mechanism of railway signal S wire. 8, circuit breaker or armature of translating device R, wire 9. circuit breaker or armature of translating device R, wire 10, circuit breaker or armatitre of translating device R", wire 11, circuit breaker or armature of translating device R and wire 1:2 back to battery. The operation of the system embodying my invention and as shown and described in Figs. 1 and 2 is as follows: The propul sion current from the generator B will al ways rcturnfrom the car or vehicle motors through the track rails, they being electrically connected and bonded so as to present substantially the same ohmic resistance throughout their length. The alternating current which is impressed on or supplied the track rails will be limited in its magnetic or operative efi'ect on the translating devic s, to the individual blocks, this being regulated through the capacity of the transformer and the impedance offered by the track rails, this impedance being from 1 to an infinite number of times more than the ohmic resistance of the track rails to the direct current. A car or train traversing the railway will short-circuit one or more trans lating devices. but will not short circuit all of the translating devices as the alternating current furnished to the block system occupied by the car will have a dilierence of potential between the transformer connections to the track rails and the car. which will be zero at the point where the car is located but will increase t()\:ll(l the point where the secondary winding of the adjacent transformers is connected with the track rails. it can be readily seen that the translating devices. where the car is located will he shunted as the alternating current potential at that point will be zero. Also the translating devices in the immediate vicinity ot the car will have a very low alternating current potential at their terminals owing to their proximity to the car. The translating devices l'arthest from the car will have considerable alternating current potential at thcir terminals and which will give suflicicut current to operate thcm. and thus have them close the "local circuit at those points. As shown in Fig. '2, th systcm is operated without the bacl; contacts and controlling wires leading therefrom on the translating devices in which case the car would influence the railway signal through the translating dcvicrs as it passes along the track as above described. in order to make a close dividing point at the location of the railway signals I have shown (see Fig. l) the trans lating devices adjacent to these railway signals with back contacts whereby it one translating device adjacent the railway signal opens the signal circuit it will in turn close the proper contacts of the adjacent translating device which would he on the buck ('0Ilt:|(fl:- at the some time. For cxaur ple. the translating dcvicc it is provided v with two back ontacts (1. c and the trans lating dciice H with two back contacts 1/, (F. the car \V approaches the signal S it will reach a point where it dccnergixcs 11. thereby closing the back contacts 1;. c". through the armature ol It. As thc car \V advances till farther. it will in like manner dci'aicigize it. thereby causing its armature to drop and opening the local circuit of the signal S at that point. This would have the cll'ect of causing the signal S to assume the danger osition before the car \V had reached it. wct'c i: not for the fact that the local circuit oi "i has already been clc" through the hart: contacts of ll winch as a shunt circuit to the front contacts of R As soon as the car W has passed the signal S, the relay R will again become energized by current flowing from the source G, and the back contacts (1, (2 will be opened thereby opening the local circuit of signal S and causing it to assume the danger position. Therefore it will be seen that a car will short circuit the two translating devices adjacent the railway signal but will only open the signal circuit of one railway signal. This same idea could he carried out through several translating devices it desired. It depends altogether on the distances apart at which the translating devices are connected. the adjustment of the trans lating devices and the amount of drop along the track and E. M. F. at the transformer. No broad claim is made herein for a track circuit in which the source of signaling cur rent is located at about the middle of the track circuit and with a relay 0r translating device located at about each end of the track circuit, as this forms the subject-matter of my co-pending application which/was originally tiled August 22. 190;, renewed February 27. 1906 .with Serial No. 303,201. Having thus described my inventiomwhat I claim is: l. The combination with an electric ra way system which comprises a source of current of one character, a circuit thcrel'or comprising two sides, one of which is formed by both track rails of the tracltway and which are without insulated joints Where a. signaling system is app'lied, and vehicles propelled along the railway by current from said source of power current; of railway signals located at intervals along the trackway and signaling the passage of the ve hicles; a signal cir uit for each railway signal; a plurality of relays each controlling a circuit breaker in said signal circuit, a relay being at each end of the signal circuit and connected with the track rails; and a source of controlling signaling current for supplying an alternating signaling current to the plurality of relays; said source of controlling current being connected with both track rails and located intermediate the relays at the ends of the signal circuit. 2. The combination with an electric rail way systmn which comprises a, source of current of rnc character. a circuit therefor comprising two sides, one of which is formed by both track rails of thc trachway and which are without insulated joints where a signaling system is applied, and vehicles propcllcd along the railway by current from said source of power current; of railway signals located at intervals along the trackway and signaling the passage of the vehi lcs: a ignal circuit for each railway sig jnal ompr sing a wire independent of the xtcnding along the tracle way; a plurality of relay each controlling a circuit breaker in said signal circuit. a relay being at each end of the signal circuit and the relays ronnc ttal with the track rail; and a source of controlling signaling current for supplying an alternating signal ing current to the plurality of rela vs, said source of controlling current being connected with both track rails and located inter mediate the relays at the ends of the signal circuit. N 3. The combination with an electric railway system which comprises a source of power current of one character, a circuit therefor comprising two sides, one of which is formed by both track rails of the trackway and which are without insulated joints where a signaling system applied, and ve hiclcs propelled along the railway by current from said source of power current; of railway signals located at intervals along the trackway and signaling the passage of the vehicles; a signal circuit for each railway signal extending along the trachway; a plurality of relays each controlling a circuit breaker in said signal circuit, a relay 1 being at each end of the signal circuit and the relays connected with the rails of the 5 trackway; a source of controlling qignaling current for supplying an alternating signaling current to the plurality ot relaya, said source of controlling current being connected with both track rails and located izr tel-mediate the relays at the curl; of the BIL" nil circuit; and bonds placed tltl't 1i the rails of the tracltway at interval to equalize 1 any difl'erences of potential of the car prie pulsion current between the track rails and without short-circuiting the alternating signaling current from the relays. 4. The combination with an electric rail way system which comprises a source of current f one character. a circuit therefor comprising two roles, one of which formed by both track r il ot the trackway and which are withcut insulated joints where a signaling system is applied, and vehi les propelled along the railway by current from said source of power current; ol railway signals located at intervals along the trac c way and signaling the passage ot the vehicles; a signal circuit for ea h railway i;{- nal extending along the traclt'way; a p nralitv of relays each controlling a circuit brt'ealter in said signal circuit, a relay being, at each end of the signal circuit and the relays being connected with the track rails; and a transformer for each signal circuit located intermediate the relays at; the ends of the signal circuit, and having its secondary winding connected with both track rails for supplying an alternating signaling current to the plurality of relavs; a main vsource, ot alternating signaling current, a conductor I independent of the trackway and extending l l l l l therefrom, to which the priniary winding-s of the several transformers a re council-ted. The con'ihination with an electric railway system which comprises a source of current, of one character, a (iit'iliL therefor comprising two sides, one of whicl l formed by both track rails of the railway and which are without insulated joints where a naling system is applied, and vehicles pro pelted along the railway by current from said source of power circuit; cross-bonds connecting said rails together at intervals and which do not short-circuit the signal currentl'rom the relays, railwa) signals located at intervals along the railway; a sig nal circuit for each railway signal extending along the trachway; a plurality of relays for each signal circuit. one being lccated at each end of each signal circuit and each re lay controlling a circuit breaker in its sig nal circuit and the relays being connected with the track rails; and a sour e of signal current l'|u'ni;-.hin 5 controlling energy to the relays of each sign circuit and lo ated intermediate the relays ol its signal circuit. 'lhc l'tlllll lllilllilll with ti':l(l-l\\'tl Y of an electri railway liming: its opposite lines of raile' electrically ontinuous for altrcnatirc" f ratin currents and hich are nithc it lltr-ll tl tt joints whe e a srgjnalinc' s tsicin i to he applicd; a :4" n'ce ol' powei current: a ci cuit therefor or which the up positc liuw ol rails form a part: railway dflllrlln located along the tracaway to form --ignaluiu points. the length of tl'ZlKA tron: i t the uevt ad acent: ra1ll =ction: a current for sour 3" ol' altc natuzg tou'ualing th and located in. li a oi" the ends of ill it aa 'liotil a r p a] circuit 'lor each rai war signal ext nding along the railway; | and a rcla'v h at d at a h end of a blockscction ene|'; I etl hv the alternating! signaling" current ot that lock section for moving" 5 the arniatures thereof, which are included in the signal circuit For th railway Sl"'ll2ll for that block Stt'll u and \illtl r lays lF-c' 1g connected with the traclt rails. 7. The c mbination with an electric railway svstcua whi h compris s a tracltway ha ing each lint ot' rails cont in ou through a ni ession ol' llihlllmi aour'e ol "urrcnt. of .' one character, a circuit t ret'nr rcinprising two sides, one of which is tin-med by both track rails of said traclnvay, and vehicles propelled along the railway by current from said' source ot power curri-nt; ot' railway signals located at intervals along the traekwar and signaling the passage of the \ehi les: a signal circuit for ach railway nal: a plurality ol iclzrys each controlling a circuit breaher in an I igtail circuit, a relay lieir a! each end to the ignal circuit and tulil'n tttl with the ra 1d the tra lmav; :1 source of controlling signaling current for supplying an alteri'iating current to the plurality of relays of each signal circuit, each source ol' controlling current being coniicctcd with both track rails and located interniediatc the ends of its signal circuit; and like poles of adjacent sources of controlling signaling current being connected to the same track rail. 8. The combination with an electric rail way system which comprises a trackway having each line of rails continuous through a succe ion of blocks, a source of current of one character for propelling rehicles along the aibr-ay, a tfil'Clll for said source of current omprising two sid s one of which is formed by both track rails of said trackway; of railway signals located at intervals along the trackway and signaling the passage of the \chiclcs; a signal circuit for each railway signal extending along the trackway; a plurality ot relays each controlling a circuit breaker in said signal circuit, a relay being at each end of the signal cir cu'it and the 'iiurality of relays for said signal circuit being connected with the track rails; a source of controlling signaling current for supplying an alternating current to the plurality of relays of each signal circuit, each source of controlling current being connected with both track rails and l cated intermediate the ends of its sig nal circuit; the relative location of the relays and sources, and the adjustn' ent of the relays and sources relative to the length and impedance of the rails in each block constituting the means for segregating the adjacent blocks. 91 The combination with an electric railway system which comprises. a source of power current of one character, a circuit therefor con'iprising two sides, one of which is formed by both track rails of the trackway and which are withoutv insulated joints where a signaling systen'i is applied, and rehicles propelled along the railway by ourrcnt from said source of power current; of r ilway signals located at intervals along the traclnvay and signaling the passage of the vehicles; a signal circuit for each railway signal extending along the trackway; a plurality of relays -ach controlling a circuit breaker in said signal circuit, a relay being at each end of the signal circuit and the plurality of relays for said signal circuit being connected with the track rails; a source of controlling signaling current for, supplying an alternating ..J1gnaling current to the. plurality of relays, said source of controlling current being connected with both track rails and located intermediate the relays at the ends of the signal circuit; and bonds placed across the rails of the tracle way at intervals to equalize any differences of potential of the car propulsion current between the track rails and without short circuiting the alternating signaling current from the relays; the rclalire location of the relays and sources, and the adjustn'icnt of the relays and sources rclatire to the length and impedance of the rails in each block, constituting the n'ieans tor segregating the adjacent blocks. 10. In combination, a trackway comprising two continuous lines ol rails which are without insulated joints where a signaling system is applied; a succession of signals located at intervals along the trackway; a signal circuit along the tracl-cway for each signal; a plurality of circuit breakers in each signal circuit one adjacent to each end of its signal circuit; a plurality oi relay magnets: connected with the rails each for coi'itrolling one ol said circuit breakers; sources of signaling current, one for each signal circuit, located intermediate the plurality of relays for each signal circuit, connected by both poles to the trackway, and like poles of all sources connected to the same rail; and current paths formed by the wheels and axles of a car traveling along said trackway for maintaining its shunting action on a relay of one signal circuit until it shunts an adjacent relay cn the next adjacent. signal circuit. In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses. LOU I'S'H. THULLEN. Witnesses: J. \V. SoIiUMAKER, A. HEHMAN lVEoNEn. C orrections in Letters Patent No. l,l09,88l. it is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 1,109,881. granted September a, 1914, upon the application of Louis H. Thullen, of Eclgewood Park. Pennsylvania, i j printed specification requiring correction as follows: Page 1, line 3, for the word 1 circuit reed circui/s. same page, line 5, for the word rail read rail am i l i page, line 76, for the word circuit read current, same page, line 96, strike out the words to he: and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these t Patent Ollice. Signed and sealed this 17th day of November, A. 1)., 1914. [sunk] R. F. WHITEHEAD, Acting Oomvmlsswmvof Patents. for an ill] irovement in Sivnulin r b stems for Railwa 's." errors a car in the, ' corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in they

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